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We evaluated: (1) punitive prenatal substance use policies (PSUPs) criminalizing prenatal substance use or defining it as child maltreatment; (2) supportive PSUPs granting pregnant females priority access to SUD treatment; and (3) supportive PSUPs funding targeted SUD treatment programs for pregnant females.
Our findings suggest that supportive approaches that enhance access to SUD treatment may effectively reduce adverse maternal outcomes associated with prenatal opioid use. In contrast, punitive approaches may have harmful effects.
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