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To ensure bystanders’ willingness to carry and administer naloxone in response to a suspected overdose, it is critical to select products for community distribution with the highest likelihood of being utilized. This study examines bystanders’ preference for and willingness to administer three naloxone products approved by the FDA for bystander use and identify product features driving preference.
After training, 44.4% chose the higher-dose nasal spray, 30.1% chose the intramuscular injection, and 25.5% chose the lower-dose nasal spray. Factors most influencing choice were ease of use, naloxone dose, and product familiarity.
A convenience sample of participants (n = 503) watched a standardized overdose education and naloxone training video, rated their willingness to administer each of three products (i.e., higher-dose nasal spray, lower-dose nasal spray, intramuscular injection), selected a product to take home, and rated factors affecting choice.